Physico-Chemistry Characterization of Sulfonated Polyacrylamide Polymers for Use in Polymer Flooding
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Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) as a feasible and effective viscosifier has been fully studied and used for polymer flooding processes in several oil field, e.g. Daqing oil field. It has been shown that Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers (HPAM) may be a good choice for high temperature condition with no oxygen and no divalent ions presence. At high temperature and high salinity conditions, polymer may precipitates and loss their viscosyfing properties. Also adsorption and retention of polymer in porous medium may change rheological properties of polymers. Thus, the viscosyfing property of polymers is influenced by several important parameters, e.g. salinity, hardness, temperature, adsorption, retention, polymer structure, and etc. By replacing some of carboxylate group of HPAM with another monomer, e.g. sodium salt of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), effect of high salinity/hardness and temperature seems to be reduced specially for the samples with higher percentage of AMPS co-monomer. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the sulfonated polyacrylamide copolymers with a range of different sulfonation and molecular weight at high salinity and high temperature conditions. Most of the work in this thesis deals with viscosity and adsorption/retention measurements of the sulfonated copolymers and HPAM. The factors which may affect the viscosity of the polymers and have been identified in this work as most likely influencing also adsorption and retention of the polymers are shear rate, polymer concentration, sulfonation degree, molecular weight, NaCl concentration, divalent ion concentration, and temperature.
Paper 1: Journal of Applied Polymer Science 117(3), Rashidi, M.; Blokhus, A. M.; Skauge, A., Viscosity Study of Salt Tolerant Polymers, pp. 1551-1557. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.32011Paper 2: Rashidi. M.; Sandvik, S.; Blokhus, A. M.; Skauge, A., Static and Dynamic Adsorption of Salt Tolerant Polymers. In: Proceedings of the 15th European symposium on improved oil recovery, Paris, France, 27-29 April 2009. Copyright the authors. Published by European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers. Reproduced with permission. Published version.Paper 3: Rashidi, M.; Blokhus A. M.; Skauge, A., Viscosity and Retention of Sulfonated Polyacrylamide Polymers at High Temperature. Full text not available in BORA.