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Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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dc.contributor.author Moyo, Sabrina John eng
dc.contributor.author Njølstad, Gro eng
dc.contributor.author Matee, Mecky I. eng
dc.contributor.author Kitundu, Jesse eng
dc.contributor.author Myrmel, Helge eng
dc.contributor.author Mylvaganam, Haima eng
dc.contributor.author Maselle, Samwel Y. eng
dc.contributor.author Langeland, Nina eng
dc.date.accessioned 2011-04-01T08:51:52Z
dc.date.available 2011-04-01T08:51:52Z
dc.date.issued 2011-02-23 eng
dc.identifier.citation BMC Pediatrics 11:19 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2431 eng
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1956/4622
dc.description.abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%), rotavirus (18.1%) and norovirus (13.7%). The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%). V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%), while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea. en_US
dc.language.iso eng eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central eng
dc.rights Attribution CC BY eng
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 eng
dc.title Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania eng
dc.type Journal article eng
dc.type Peer reviewed eng
dc.subject.nsi VDP::Medical disciplines: 700 eng
dc.rights.holder Copyright 2011 Moyo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.rights.holder Moyo et al. eng
dc.type.version publishedVersion eng
bora.peerreviewed Peer reviewed eng
bora.cristinID 829567 eng
bibo.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-19 eng
dc.identifier.cristinID 829567 eng
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-19


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