Epidural analgesia for labour pain in nulliparous women in Norway in relation to maternal country of birth and migration related factors
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionSexual & Reproductive HealthCare. 2020, 26, 100553 10.1016/j.srhc.2020.100553
Objective To investigate associations between maternal country of birth and other migration related factors (length of residence, reason for migration, paternal origin) and epidural analgesia for labour pain in nulliparous women in Norway. Design Population-based register study including nulliparous migrant women (n = 75,922) and non-migrant women (n = 444,496) with spontaneous or induced labour. Data were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry and Statistics Norway, 1990–2013. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression, and adjusted for maternal age, marital status, maternal education, gross income, birth year, hospital size and health region. Main outcome Epidural analgesia for labour pain. Results Epidural analgesia was administered to 38% of migrant women and 31% of non-migrant women. Compared with non-migrants, the odds of having epidural analgesia were lowest in women from Vietnam (adjOR 0.54; CI 0.50–0.59) and Somalia (adjOR 0.63; CI 0.58–0.68) and highest in women from Iran (adjOR 1.32; CI 1.19–1.46) and India (adjOR 1.19; CI 1.06–1.33). Refugees (adjOR 0.83; CI 0.79–0.87) and newly arrived migrants (adjOR 0.92; CI 0.89–0.94) had lower odds of epidural analgesia. Migrant women with a non-migrant partner (adjOR 1.14; CI 1.11–1.17) and those with length of residence ≥10 years (adjOR 1.06; CI 1.02–1.10) had higher odds. Conclusion The use of epidural analgesia varied by maternal country of birth, reason for migration, paternal origin and length of residence. Midwives and obstetricians should pay extra attention to the provision of adequate information about pain relief options for refugees and newly arrived migrants, who had the lowest use.