The impact of anti-sea lice pesticides, azamethiphos and deltamethrin, on European lobster (Homarus gammarus) larvae in the Norwegian marine environment
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonEnvironmental Pollution. 2020, 264, 114725. 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114725
Anti-sea lice pesticides, used in the salmonid aquaculture industry, are a growing environmental concern due to their potential to adversely affect non-target crustaceans. Azamethiphos and deltamethrin are two bath treatment pesticides used on salmon farms in Norway, however, limited information is available on their impact on European lobster (Homarus gammarus) larvae in the Norwegian marine environment. Here, we firstly report the lethal (LC50) and effective (EC50) concentrations of azamethiphos and deltamethrin for stage I and stage II larvae, following 1-h exposures. Using a hydrodynamic model, we also modelled the dispersal of both compounds into the marine environment around selected Norwegian farms and mapped the potential impact zones (areas that experience LC50 and EC50 concentrations) around each farm. Our data shows that azamethiphos and deltamethrin are acutely toxic to both larval stages, with LC50 and EC50 values below the recommended treatment concentrations. We also show that the azamethiphos impact zones around farms were relatively small (mean area of 0.04–0.2 km2), however deltamethrin impact zones covered much larger areas (mean area of 21.1–39.0 km2). These findings suggest that deltamethrin poses a significant risk to European lobster in the Norwegian marine environment while the impact of azamethiphos may be less severe.