Enabling Large-Scale Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) Using Offshore Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Infrastructure Developments - A Review
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonEnergies 2019, 12 (10), 1945. 10.3390/en12101945
Presently, the only offshore project for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide, known as CO2-EOR, is in Brazil. Several desk studies have been undertaken, without any projects being implemented. The objective of this review is to investigate barriers to the implementation of large-scale offshore CO2-EOR projects, to identify recent technology developments, and to suggest non-technological incentives that may enable implementation. We examine differences between onshore and offshore CO2-EOR, emerging technologies that could enable projects, as well as approaches and regulatory requirements that may help overcome barriers. Our review shows that there are few, if any, technical barriers to offshore CO2-EOR. However, there are many other barriers to the implementation of offshore CO2-EOR, including: High investment and operation costs, uncertainties about reservoir performance, limited access of CO2 supply, lack of business models, and uncertainties about regulations. This review describes recent technology developments that may remove such barriers and concludes with recommendations for overcoming non-technical barriers. The review is based on a report by the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF).