High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae among newly HIV-diagnosed adults in a community setting in Tanzania
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonMicrobial Drug Resistance. 2020, 26 (12), 1540-1545. 10.1089/mdr.2020.0066
Colonization in HIV-infected populations with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) is particularly worrisome in low-income settings. This study describes the prevalence of ESBL-PE carriage and associated risk factors among newly HIV-diagnosed adults in a community setting in Tanzania. A total of 595 newly diagnosed HIV-positive adults with a median age of 35 years with interquartile range (IQR) 29–42 years and a median CD4 count of 492 cells/μL (IQR 390–666 cells/μL) were recruited. Among these, 194/595 (32.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.9–36.6) were ESBL-PE carriers. Participants with low CD4 count (<350 cells/μL) had significantly higher prevalence of ESBL-PE carriage compared with those with CD4 count ≥350 cells/μL (26/58, 44.8%, vs. 168/537, 31.3%, p = 0.04). Antibiotic use in last 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.22, p = 0.02) and CD4 count <350 cells/μL (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03–3.09, p = 0.04) were independent risk factors for fecal carriage of ESBL-PE. In total, 244 isolates of ESBL-PE were isolated from 194 participants. Of these, 238/244 (97.5%) harbored blaCTX-M genes, with blaCTX-M-15 being predominant (219/238 (92%), followed by blaCTX-M-27 (9/238 (3.8%), blaCTX-M-14 (8/238 (3.4%), blaCTX-M-55 (1/238), and blaCTX-M 211/3 (1/238). blaSHV-2a genes were detected in four isolates, whereas the blaSHV-12 gene was detected in one isolate. Phenotypic carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was detected in one HIV-positive person with CD4 count 132 cells/μL. In conclusion prevalence of ESBL-PE carriage is high among newly diagnosed HIV adults in Dar es Salaam, and is significantly associated antibiotic use and low CD4 count.