The emerging role of cd24 in cancer theranostics—a novel target for fluorescence image-guided surgery in ovarian cancer and beyond
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Personalized Medicine. 2020, 10 (4), 255 10.3390/jpm10040255
Complete cytoreductive surgery is the cornerstone of the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The application of fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) allows for the increased intraoperative visualization and delineation of malignant lesions by using fluorescently labeled targeting biomarkers, thereby improving intraoperative guidance. CD24, a small glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface receptor, is overexpressed in approximately 70% of solid cancers, and has been proposed as a prognostic and therapeutic tumor-specific biomarker for EOC. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the benefit of CD24-targeted contrast agents for non-invasive fluorescence imaging, as well as improved tumor resection by employing CD24-targeted FIGS in orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models of EOC. The successful detection of miniscule metastases denotes CD24 as a promising biomarker for the application of fluorescence-guided surgery in EOC patients. The aim of this review is to present the clinical and preclinically evaluated biomarkers for ovarian cancer FIGS, highlight the strengths of CD24, and propose a future bimodal approach combining CD24-targeted fluorescence imaging with radionuclide detection and targeted therapy.