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dc.contributor.authorAlme, Johan
dc.contributor.authorBarnaföldi, Gergely Gábor
dc.contributor.authorBarthel, Rene
dc.contributor.authorBorshchov, Vyacheslav
dc.contributor.authorBodova, Tea
dc.contributor.authorvan den Brink, Anthony
dc.contributor.authorBrons, Stephan
dc.contributor.authorChaar, Mamdouh
dc.contributor.authorEikeland, Viljar Nilsen
dc.contributor.authorFeofilov, Grigory
dc.contributor.authorGenov, Georgi
dc.contributor.authorGrimstad, Silje
dc.contributor.authorGrøttvik, Ola Slettevoll
dc.contributor.authorHelstrup, Håvard
dc.contributor.authorHerland, Alf Kristoffer
dc.contributor.authorHilde, Annar Eivindplass
dc.contributor.authorIgolkin, Sergey
dc.contributor.authorKeidel, Ralf
dc.contributor.authorKobdaj, Chinorat
dc.contributor.authorvan der Kolk, Naomi
dc.contributor.authorListratenko, Oleksandr
dc.contributor.authorMalik, Qasim Waheed
dc.contributor.authorMehendale, Shruti Vineet
dc.contributor.authorMeric, Ilker
dc.contributor.authorNesbø, Simon Voigt
dc.contributor.authorOdland, Odd Harald
dc.contributor.authorPapp, Gábor
dc.contributor.authorPeitzmann, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorPettersen, Helge Egil Seime
dc.contributor.authorPiersimoni, Pierluigi
dc.contributor.authorProtsenko, Maksym
dc.contributor.authorRehman, Attiq Ur
dc.contributor.authorRichter, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorRøhrich, Dieter
dc.contributor.authorSamnøy, Andreas Tefre
dc.contributor.authorSeco, Joao
dc.contributor.authorSetterdahl, Lena
dc.contributor.authorShafiee, Hesam
dc.contributor.authorSkjolddal, Øistein Jelmert
dc.contributor.authorSolheim, Inger Emilie
dc.contributor.authorSongmoolnak, Arnon
dc.contributor.authorSudár, Ákos
dc.contributor.authorSølie, Jarle Rambo
dc.contributor.authorTambave, Ganesh Jagannath
dc.contributor.authorTymchuk, Ihor
dc.contributor.authorUllaland, Kjetil
dc.contributor.authorUnderdal, Håkon Andreas
dc.contributor.authorVarga-Kofarago, Monika
dc.contributor.authorVolz, Lennart
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Boris
dc.contributor.authorWiderøe, Fredrik Mekki
dc.contributor.authorXiao, RenZheng
dc.contributor.authorYang, Shiming
dc.contributor.authorYokoyama, Hiroki
dc.date.accessioned2021-05-28T13:17:01Z
dc.date.available2021-05-28T13:17:01Z
dc.date.created2021-01-27T15:40:03Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.PublishedFrontiers in Physics. 2020, 8:568243 1-20.
dc.identifier.issn2296-424X
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11250/2756915
dc.description.abstractA typical proton CT (pCT) detector comprises a tracking system, used to measure the proton position before and after the imaged object, and an energy/range detector to measure the residual proton range after crossing the object. The Bergen pCT collaboration was established to design and build a prototype pCT scanner with a high granularity digital tracking calorimeter used as both tracking and energy/range detector. In this work the conceptual design and the layout of the mechanical and electronics implementation, along with Monte Carlo simulations of the new pCT system are reported. The digital tracking calorimeter is a multilayer structure with a lateral aperture of 27 cm × 16.6 cm, made of 41 detector/absorber sandwich layers (calorimeter), with aluminum (3.5 mm) used both as absorber and carrier, and two additional layers used as tracking system (rear trackers) positioned downstream of the imaged object; no tracking upstream the object is included. The rear tracker’s structure only differs from the calorimeter layers for the carrier made of ∼200 μm carbon fleece and carbon paper (carbon-epoxy sandwich), to minimize scattering. Each sensitive layer consists of 108 ALICE pixel detector (ALPIDE) chip sensors (developed for ALICE, CERN) bonded on a polyimide flex and subsequently bonded to a larger flexible printed circuit board. Beam tests tailored to the pCT operation have been performed using high-energetic (50–220 MeV/u) proton and ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. These tests proved the ALPIDE response independent of occupancy and proportional to the particle energy deposition, making the distinction of different ion tracks possible. The read-out electronics is able to handle enough data to acquire a single 2D image in few seconds making the system fast enough to be used in a clinical environment. For the reconstructed images in the modeled Monte Carlo simulation, the water equivalent path length error is lower than 2 mm, and the relative stopping power accuracy is better than 0.4%. Thanks to its ability to detect different types of radiation and its specific design, the pCT scanner can be employed for additional online applications during the treatment, such as in-situ proton range verification.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.no*
dc.titleA high-granularity digital tracking calorimeter optimized for proton CTen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.description.versionpublishedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2020 Alme, Barnaföldi, Barthel, Borshchov, Bodova, van den Brink, Brons, Chaar, Eikeland, Genov, Grimstad, Grøttvik, Helstrup, Herland, Hilde, Keidel, Kobdaj, van der Kolk, Listratenko, Malik, Mehendale, Meric, Nesbø, Odland, Papp, Peitzmann, Pettersen, Piersimoni, Protsenko, Rehman, Richter, Röhrich, Samnøy, Seco, Setterdahl, Shafiee, Skjolddal, Solheim, Songmoolnak, Sudár, Sølie, Tambave, Tymchuk, Ullaland, Underdal, Varga-Köfaragó, Volz, Wagner, Weigold, Widerøe, Xiao, Yang and Yokoyamaen_US
dc.source.articlenumber568243en_US
cristin.ispublishedtrue
cristin.fulltextoriginal
cristin.qualitycode1
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fphy.2020.568243
dc.identifier.cristin1880540
dc.source.journalFrontiers in Physicsen_US
dc.source.408:568243
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Physics. 2020, 8, 568243en_US
dc.source.volume8en_US


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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal