High rate of antimicrobial resistance and multiple mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from HIV-infected adults in a community setting in Tanzania
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 2020, 22, 749-753. 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.06.026
Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance to trimethoprim and other antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A total of 1877 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for pneumococcal colonization from 537 newly diagnosed individuals with HIV at four clinic visits during a 1-year follow-up from 2017–2018 as part of the randomized clinical trial CoTrimResist (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03087890). Results A total of 76 pneumococcal isolates were obtained. Of the 70 isolates that could be serotyped, 42 (60.0%) were vaccine serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 23 (PCV23). The majority of isolates (73.7%; 56/76) were non-susceptible to penicillin (MICs of 0.06–2 μg/mL). Isolates were frequently resistant to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) (71.1%) but less so to azithromycin (22.4%), erythromycin (21.1%), chloramphenicol (18.4%), tetracycline (14.5%), clindamycin (10.5%) and levofloxacin (0%). Moreover, 26.3% were multidrug-resistant (resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes). Vaccine-type pneumococci were resistant to more classes of antibiotics, were more frequently resistant to erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline, and had higher MICs to penicillin (median, 0.19 μg/mL; range, 0.002–1.5 μg/mL) compared with non-vaccine serotypes (median, 0.125 μg/mL; range, 0.012–0.25 μg/mL) (P = 0.003). Co-trimoxazole-resistant isolates carried from 1 to 11 different mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene, most commonly Ile100Leu (100%), Glu20Asp (91.8%), Glu94Asp (61.2%), Leu135Phe (57.1%), His26Tyr (53.1%), Asp92Ala (53.1%) and His120Gln (53.1%). Conclusion Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from HIV-diagnosed patients were frequently non-susceptible to penicillin and co-trimoxazole. Most isolates carried multiple mutations in DHFR.