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dc.contributor.authorGrønseth, Rune
dc.contributor.authorDrengenes, Christine
dc.contributor.authorWiker, Harald G
dc.contributor.authorTangedal, Solveig
dc.contributor.authorXue, Yaxin
dc.contributor.authorHusebø, Gunnar
dc.contributor.authorSvanes, Øistein
dc.contributor.authorLehmann, Sverre
dc.contributor.authorAardal, Marit Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorHoang, Tuyen
dc.contributor.authorKalananthan, Tharmini
dc.contributor.authorMartinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad
dc.contributor.authorLeiten, Elise Orvedal
dc.contributor.authorAanerud, Marianne
dc.contributor.authorNordeide, Eli
dc.contributor.authorHaaland, Ingvild
dc.contributor.authorJonassen, Inge
dc.contributor.authorBakke, Per S.
dc.contributor.authorEagan, Tomas Mikal
dc.description.abstractThe aim was to evaluate susceptibility of oropharyngeal contamination with various bronchoscopic sampling techniques. 67 patients with obstructive lung disease and 58 control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with small-volume lavage (SVL) through the working channel, protected bronchoalveolar lavage (PBAL) and bilateral protected specimen brush (PSB) sampling. Subjects also provided an oral wash (OW) sample, and negative control samples were gathered for each bronchoscopy procedure. DNA encoding bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced and bioinformatically processed to cluster into operational taxonomic units (OTU), assign taxonomy and obtain measures of diversity. The proportion of Proteobacteria increased, whereas Firmicutes diminished in the order OW, SVL, PBAL, PSB (p<0.01). The alpha-diversity decreased in the same order (p<0.01). Also, beta-diversity varied by sampling method (p<0.01), and visualisation of principal coordinates analyses indicated that differences in diversity were smaller between OW and SVL and OW and PBAL samples than for OW and the PSB samples. The order of sampling (left versus right first) did not influence alpha- or beta-diversity for PSB samples. Studies of the airway microbiota need to address the potential for oropharyngeal contamination, and protected sampling might represent an acceptable measure to minimise this problem.en_US
dc.publisherEuropean Respiratory Societyen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleProtected sampling is preferable in bronchoscopic studies of the airway microbiomeen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2017 ERS.en_US
dc.source.journalEuropean Respiratory Journal Open Research (ERJ Open Research)en_US
dc.identifier.citationEuropean Respiratory Journal Open Research. 2017, 3 (3), 00019-2017en_US

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Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal
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