Familial Contributions to the Association Between Low Birth Weight and Risk of CKD in Adult Life
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonKidney International Reports. 2021, 6 (8), 2151-2158. 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.05.032
Introduction Previous studies have revealed that individuals with low birth weight (LBW) have higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that LBW and CKD cluster in families. This study investigates how familial factors affect the association between birth-related risk markers and risk of CKD. Methods The Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway has registered all births in Norway since 1967. Sibling data were available through the Norwegian Population Registry. The Norwegian Patient Registry has registered diagnostic codes for all admissions and outpatient visits to Norwegian hospitals since 2008. Data from these registries were linked. Risk of CKD according to whether the individual himself or at least one of his siblings had LBW was analyzed using logistic regression statistics. Results Of 1,847,565 individuals, 3336 had been diagnosed with CKD. Compared with individuals without LBW and no siblings with LBW, individuals without LBW but who had a sibling with LBW had adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.33 (1.19–1.49), those with LBW but no siblings with LBW had aOR of 1.74 (1.55–1.95), and those with LBW and a sibling with LBW had aOR of 1.77 (1.54–2.04) for CKD. Similar results were found for LBW for gestational age, but preterm birth revealed weaker associations. Conclusion Individuals who have a sibling with LBW have an increased risk of CKD later in life, and individuals who themselves have LBW have an even higher risk. Our findings suggest that there are familial contributions to the nephron endowment in utero hypothesis.