Development and clinical implementation of a structured, simulation-based training programme in laparoscopic appendectomy: Description, validation and evaluation
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBMJ Simulation & Tecnnology Enhanced Learning (BMJ STEL). 2021, 7 (6), 517-523. 10.1136/bmjstel-2020-000728
Background: Laparoscopic appendectomy is a common procedure in general surgery but is likely underused in structured and real-life teaching. This study describes the development, validation and evaluation of implementing a structured training programme for laparoscopic appendectomy. Study design: A structured curriculum and simulation-based programme for trainees and trainers was developed. All general surgery trainees and trainers were involved in laparoscopic appendectomies. All trainees and trainers underwent the structured preprocedure training programme before real-life surgery evaluation. A standardised form evaluated eight technical steps (skills) of the procedure as well as an overall assessment, and nine elements of communication (feedback), and was used for bilateral evaluation by each trainee and trainer. A consecutive, observational cohort over a 12-month period was used to gauge real-life implementation. Results: During 277 eligible real-life appendectomies, structured evaluation was performed in 173 (62%) laparoscopic appendectomies, for which 165 forms were completed by 19 trainees. Construct validity was found satisfactory. Inter-rater reliability demonstrated good correlation between trainee and trainer. The trainees’ and trainers’ stepwise and overall assessments of technical skills had an overall good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88). The vast majority (92.2%) of the trainees either agreed or strongly agreed that the training met their expectations. Conclusion: Structured training for general surgery residents can be implemented for laparoscopic appendectomy. Skills assessment by trainees and trainers indicated reliable self-assessment. Overall, the trainees were satisfied with the training, including the feedback from the trainers.