Pregnancy and risk of COVID-19: a Norwegian registry-linkage study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2021. 10.1111/1471-0528.16969
Objective: To compare the risk of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and contact with specialist healthcare services for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Population or sample: All women ages 15–45 living in Norway on 1 March 2020 (n = 1 033 699). Methods: We linked information from the national birth, patient, communicable diseases and education databases using unique national identifiers. Main outcome measure: We estimated hazard ratios (HR) among pregnant compared to non-pregnant women of having a positive test for SARS-CoV-2, a diagnosis of COVID-19 in specialist healthcare, or hospitalisation with COVID-19 using Cox regression. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, marital status, education, income, country of birth and underlying medical conditions. Results: Pregnant women were not more likely to be tested for or to a have a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92–1.07). Pregnant women had higher risk of hospitalisation with COVID-19 (HR 4.70, 95% CI 3.51–6.30) and any type of specialist care for COVID-19 (HR 3.46, 95% CI 2.89–4.14). Pregnant women born outside Scandinavia were less likely to be tested, and at higher risk of a positive test (HR 2.37, 95% CI 2.51–8.87). Compared with pregnant Scandinavian-born women, pregnant women with minority background had a higher risk of hospitalisation with COVID-19 (HR 4.72, 95% CI 2.51–8.87). Conclusion: Pregnant women were not more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. Still, pregnant women with COVID-19, especially those born outside of Scandinavia, were more likely to be hospitalised.