Predictors of slow clinical response and extended treatment in patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Pakistan, A hospital-based prospective study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPLOS ONE. 2021, 16 (11), e0259801. 10.1371/journal.pone.0259801
The optimal duration of treatment in different forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is not clearly defined. This study aimed to identify predictors of slow clinical response and extended anti-TB treatment in EPTB patients. Socio-demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of EPTB patients registered for anti-TB treatment at a tertiary care hospital, were analysed for identification of predictors of extended treatment. A total of 251 patients (137 lymphadenitis, and 114 pleuritis) were included in the analysis. Treatment was extended to more than 6 months in 58/251 (23%) patients. In the multivariate regression analysis, culture-positive EPTB (p = 0.007) [OR (95% CI) = 3.81 (1.43, 10.11)], history of diabetes (p = 0.014) [OR (95% CI) = 25.18 (1.94, 325.83)], smokeless tobacco use (p = 0.002) [OR (95% CI) = 17.69 (2.80, 111.72)], and slow regression of local signs and symptoms after 2 months of treatment (p < 0.001) [OR (95% CI) = 17.09 [(5.79, 50.39)] were seen to be significantly associated with treatment extension. Identification of predictors of extended treatment can help clinical decisions regarding optimal duration of treatment. Further studies are needed to identify subgroups of EPTB patients who can benefit from a shorter or longer treatment regimen.