Repeated bronchoscopy in health and obstructive lung disease: is the airway microbiome stable?
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonBMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2021, 21, 342. 10.1186/s12890-021-01687-0
Objective Little is known concerning the stability of the lower airway microbiome. We have compared the microbiota identified by repeated bronchoscopy in healthy subjects and patients with ostructive lung diseaseases (OLD). Methods 21 healthy controls and 41 patients with OLD completed two bronchoscopies. In addition to negative controls (NCS) and oral wash (OW) samples, we gathered protected bronchoalveolar lavage in two fractions (PBAL1 and PBAL2) and protected specimen brushes (PSB). After DNA extraction, we amplified the V3V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and performed paired-end sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Initial bioinformatic processing was carried out in the QIIME-2 pipeline, identifying amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) with the DADA2 algorithm. Potentially contaminating ASVs were identified and removed using the decontam package in R and the sequenced NCS. Results A final table of 551 ASVs consisted of 19 × 106 sequences. Alpha diversity was lower in the second exam for OW samples, and borderline lower for PBAL1, with larger differences in subjects not having received intercurrent antibiotics. Permutational tests of beta diversity indicated that within-individual changes were significantly lower than between-individual changes. A non-parametric trend test showed that differences in composition between the two exams (beta diversity) were largest in the PSBs, and that these differences followed a pattern of PSB > PBAL2 > PBAL1 > OW. Time between procedures was not associated with increased diversity. Conclusion The airways microbiota varied between examinations. However, there is compositional microbiota stability within a person, beyond that of chance, supporting the notion of a transient airways microbiota with a possibly more stable individual core microbiome.