Selectivity of the collagen-binding integrin inhibitors, TC-I-15 and obtustatin
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionToxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2021, 428, 115669. 10.1016/j.taap.2021.115669
Integrins are a family of 24 adhesion receptors which are both widely-expressed and important in many pathophysiological cellular processes, from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Hence, integrin inhibitors are valuable research tools which may have promising therapeutic uses. Here, we focus on the four collagen-binding integrins α1β1, α2β1, α10β1 and α11β1. TC-I-15 is a small molecule inhibitor of α2β1 that inhibits platelet adhesion to collagen and thrombus deposition, and obtustatin is an α1β1-specific disintegrin that inhibits angiogenesis. Both inhibitors were applied in cellular adhesion studies, using synthetic collagen peptide coatings with selective affinity for the different collagen-binding integrins and testing the adhesion of C2C12 cells transfected with each. Obtustatin was found to be specific for α1β1, as described, whereas TC-I-15 is shown to be non-specific, since it inhibits both α1β1 and α11β1 as well as α2β1. TC-I-15 was 100-fold more potent against α2β1 binding to a lower-affinity collagen peptide, suggestive of a competitive mechanism. These results caution against the use of integrin inhibitors in a therapeutic or research setting without testing for cross-reactivity.