On a nonlinear rod exhibiting only axial and bending deformations: mathematical modeling and numerical implementation
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionActa Mechanica. 2021, 232, 3825-3847. 10.1007/s00707-021-03038-w
In this work, we present the mathematical formulation and the numerical implementation of a new model for initially straight, transversely isotropic rods. By adopting a configuration space that intrinsically avoids shear deformations and by systemically neglecting the energetic contribution due to torsion, the proposed model admits an unconstrained variational statement. Moreover, as the natural state of the rod is the trivial one and the mechanical properties are homogeneous on the cross section, the need for pull-back and push-forward operations in the formulation is totally circumvented. These features impose, however, some smoothness requirements on the stored energy function that need to be carefully considered when adopting general constitutive models. In addition to introducing the rod model, we propose a spatial discretization with the finite element method, and a time integration with a hybrid, implicit scheme. To illustrate the favorable features of the new model, we provide results corresponding to numerical simulations for plane and three-dimensional problems that are investigated in the static and dynamic settings. Finally, and to put the presented ideas in a suitable context, we compare solutions obtained with the new model against a rod model that allows for torsion and shear.