Magnetospheric Flux Throughput in the Dungey Cycle: Identification of Convection State During 2010
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Space Physics. 2021, 126 (2), e2020JA028437. 10.1029/2020JA028437
We quantify the contributions of different convection states to the magnetic flux throughput of the magnetosphere during 2010. To do this we provide a continuous classification of convection state for the duration of 2010 based upon observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic indices, and field-aligned currents measured by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Convection states are defined as (1) quiet, (2) weak activity, substorm (3) growth, (4) expansion and (5) recovery phases, (6) substorm driven phase (when relatively steady magnetospheric convection occurs), (7) recovery bays (when recovery phase is accompanied by a negative excursion of the AL electrojet index), and (8) periods of multiple intensifications (storm-time periods when continuous short-period AL activity occur). The magnetosphere is quiet for 46% of the time, when very little convection takes place. The majority of convection occurs during growth and driven phases (21% and 38%, respectively, of open magnetic flux accumulation by dayside reconnection). We discuss these results in the context of the expanding/contracting polar cap model of convection, and describe a framework within which isolated substorms and disturbances during periods of more continuous solar wind-magnetosphere driving can be understood.