Effect of Temporal and Spatial Smoothing on Speckle–Tracking‑Derived Strain in Neonates
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPediatric Cardiology. 2021, 42, 743–752. 10.1007/s00246-020-02536-3
Clinical application of strain in neonates requires an understanding of which image acquisition and processing parameters affect strain values. Previous studies have examined frame rate, transmitting frequency, and vendor heterogeneity. However, there is a lack of human studies on how user-regulated spatial and temporal smoothing affect strain values in 36 neonates. This study examined nine different combinations of spatial and temporal smoothing on peak systolic left ventricular longitudinal strain in 36 healthy neonates. Strain values were acquired from four-chamber echocardiographic images in the software-defined epicardial, midwall, and endocardial layers in the six standard segments and average four-chamber stain. Strain values were compared using repeated measure ANOVAs. Overall, spatial smoothing had a larger impact than temporal smoothing, and segmental strain values were more sensitive to smoothing settings than average four-chamber strain. Apicoseptal strain decreased by approximately 4% with increasing spatial smoothing, corresponding to a 13–19% proportional change (depending on wall layer). Therefore, we recommend clinicians be mindful of smoothing settings when assessing segmental strain values.