Safety, Immunogenicity, Efficacy and Effectiveness of Inactivated Influenza Vaccines in Healthy Pregnant Women and Children Under 5 Years: An Evidence-Based Clinical Review
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonFrontiers in Immunology. 2021, 12, 744774. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.744774
Annual influenza vaccination is often recommended for pregnant women and young children to reduce the risk of severe influenza. However, most studies investigating the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy or effectiveness of influenza vaccines are conducted in healthy adults. In this evidence-based clinical review, we provide an update on the safety profile, immunogenicity, and efficacy/effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) in healthy pregnant women and children <5 years old. Six electronic databases were searched until May 27, 2021. We identified 3,731 articles, of which 93 met the eligibility criteria and were included. The IIVs were generally well tolerated in pregnant women and young children, with low frequencies of adverse events following IIV administration; however, continuous vaccine safety monitoring systems are necessary to detect rare adverse events. IIVs generated good antibody responses, and the seroprotection rates after IIVs were moderate to high in pregnant women (range = 65%–96%) and young children (range = 50%–100%), varying between the different influenza types/subtypes and seasons. Studies show vaccine efficacy/effectiveness values of 50%–70% in pregnant women and 20%–90% in young children against lab-confirmed influenza, although the efficacy/effectiveness depended on the study design, host factors, vaccine type, manufacturing practices, and the antigenic match/mismatch between the influenza vaccine strains and the circulating strains. Current evidence suggests that the benefits of IIVs far outweigh the potential risks and that IIVs should be recommended for pregnant women and young children.