Order-Related Problems Parameterized by Width
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In the main body of this thesis, we study two different order theoretic problems. The first problem, called Completion of an Ordering, asks to extend a given finite partial order to a complete linear order while respecting some weight constraints. The second problem is an order reconfiguration problem under width constraints. While the Completion of an Ordering problem is NP-complete, we show that it lies in FPT when parameterized by the interval width of ρ. This ordering problem can be used to model several ordering problems stemming from diverse application areas, such as graph drawing, computational social choice, and computer memory management. Each application yields a special partial order ρ. We also relate the interval width of ρ to parameterizations for these problems that have been studied earlier in the context of these applications, sometimes improving on parameterized algorithms that have been developed for these parameterizations before. This approach also gives some practical sub-exponential time algorithms for ordering problems. In our second main result, we combine our parameterized approach with the paradigm of solution diversity. The idea of solution diversity is that instead of aiming at the development of algorithms that output a single optimal solution, the goal is to investigate algorithms that output a small set of sufficiently good solutions that are sufficiently diverse from one another. In this way, the user has the opportunity to choose the solution that is most appropriate to the context at hand. It also displays the richness of the solution space. There, we show that the considered diversity version of the Completion of an Ordering problem is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to natural paramaters that capture the notion of diversity and the notion of sufficiently good solutions. We apply this algorithm in the study of the Kemeny Rank Aggregation class of problems, a well-studied class of problems lying in the intersection of order theory and social choice theory. Up to this point, we have been looking at problems where the goal is to find an optimal solution or a diverse set of good solutions. In the last part, we shift our focus from finding solutions to studying the solution space of a problem. There we consider the following order reconfiguration problem: Given a graph G together with linear orders τ and τ ′ of the vertices of G, can one transform τ into τ ′ by a sequence of swaps of adjacent elements in such a way that at each time step the resulting linear order has cutwidth (pathwidth) at most w? We show that this problem always has an affirmative answer when the input linear orders τ and τ ′ have cutwidth (pathwidth) at most w/2. Using this result, we establish a connection between two apparently unrelated problems: the reachability problem for two-letter string rewriting systems and the graph isomorphism problem for graphs of bounded cutwidth. This opens an avenue for the study of the famous graph isomorphism problem using techniques from term rewriting theory. In addition to the main part of this work, we present results on two unrelated problems, namely on the Steiner Tree problem and on the Intersection Non-emptiness problem from automata theory.