Impact of childhood trauma on antipsychotic effectiveness in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A prospective, pragmatic, semi-randomized trial
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonSchizophrenia Research. 2022, 246, 49-59. 10.1016/j.schres.2022.05.022
Antipsychotic medications are generally effective in ameliorating psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Identifying predictors associated with poor treatment response is important for a personalized treatment approach. Childhood trauma (CT) may have a general and differential effect on the effectiveness of different types of antipsychotics in SSDs. The Bergen-Stavanger-Trondheim-Innsbruck (BeSt InTro) study is a pragmatic, researcher-initiated, semi-randomized trial. The present study aimed to investigate symptom change (the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) from baseline to 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 39 and 52 weeks of antipsychotic treatment (amisulpride, aripiprazole and olanzapine) by group (CT/no CT). Participants (n = 98) with diagnoses within the schizophrenia spectrum (F20–29 in the International Classification of Diseases — 10th Revision) were randomized to receive amisulpride, aripiprazole or olanzapine, and for this study categorized into groups of none and low CT, and moderate to severe CT according to thresholds defined by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short-Form manual. CT in SSDs predicted an overall slower treatment response and less antipsychotic effectiveness after 26 weeks of treatment, which was statistically nonsignificant at 52 weeks. Secondary analyses showed a differential effect of CT related to type of antipsychotic medication: patients with SSDs and CT who received olanzapine showed less antipsychotic effectiveness throughout 52 weeks of treatment. The intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were convergent. Our findings indicate that in patients with SSD and CT, delayed response to antipsychotics could be expected, and a longer evaluation period before considering change of medication may be recommended.