Insall proximal realignment with/without tibial tubercle osteotomy for recurrent patellar instability yields acceptable medium- to long-term results but risk of osteoarthritis progression is considerable
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Experimental Orthopaedics. 2022, 9, 64. 10.1186/s40634-022-00502-x
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological results in patients operated for recurrent patellar instability with a surgical approach consisting of Insall proximal realignment with/without tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO). Methods: Patients that underwent surgery for recurrent patellar instability at one centre with a uniform technique between 2004 and 2020 were included. Eligible patients were assessed by clinical examination and the disease-specific Banff Patellofemoral Instability Instrument 2.0 (BPII 2.0). Pre- and postoperative radiographs were analysed for patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) according to Iwano. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographs were analysed for anatomical risk factors for patellar instability. Student t-test, chi-square test and ANOVA-analyses were used to investigate whether anatomical risk factors and/or patient characteristics could predict an inferior outcome. Results: Forty-six patients (47 knees) were included at a mean follow-up time of 6.6 years (SD 4.6; range 1–17). Mean BPII 2.0 score was 60.4 (SD 18.4; range 26–98), and 10.6% (n = 5) had suffered a postoperative redislocation. Progression to evident patellofemoral OA was seen in 15% of the patients (p < 0.05). The presence of pathoanatomic risk factors did not correlate with recurrent postoperative instability or inferior BPII 2.0 score at the final evaluation. Conclusion: Patients treated with the current approach reported acceptable medium- to long-term results, but the risk of patellofemoral OA progression is significant. These findings add to the knowledge of expected outcomes after procedures involving Insall proximal realignment, and can guide clinical decision making for surgeons using similar methods.