Parsimonious hidden Markov models for matrix-variate longitudinal data
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionStatistics and computing. 2022, 32 (3), 53. 10.1007/s11222-022-10107-0
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been extensively used in the univariate and multivariate literature. However, there has been an increased interest in the analysis of matrix-variate data over the recent years. In this manuscript we introduce HMMs for matrix-variate balanced longitudinal data, by assuming a matrix normal distribution in each hidden state. Such data are arranged in a four-way array. To address for possible overparameterization issues, we consider the eigen decomposition of the covariance matrices, leading to a total of 98 HMMs. An expectation-conditional maximization algorithm is discussed for parameter estimation. The proposed models are firstly investigated on simulated data, in terms of parameter recovery, computational times and model selection. Then, they are fitted to a four-way real data set concerning the unemployment rates of the Italian provinces, evaluated by gender and age classes, over the last 16 years.