Characterization of high value products in the side-stream of Laminaria hyperborea alginate production - Targeting the phenolic content
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionAlgal Research. 2023, 72, 103109. 10.1016/j.algal.2023.103109
Sustainable production based on renewable biomass and efficient bioprocesses are important elements in the growing blue bioeconomy. The traditional Laminaria hyperborea alginate production disposes approximately 80 % of the raw material, ignoring large amounts of potential high-value products from the alga. Particularly, the leaf fraction of the seaweed is often disregarded. This study aimed to characterize high value products from the alginate production side-stream – focusing on the leaf biomass and particularly targeting the phenolic content. After extraction and solvent optimization, 60 % methanol was used for the extraction. The extract was further purified with PuriFlash and semi-preparative chromatography and increasing phenolic selectivity and purity was observed with TPC and qNMR, as well as antioxidant activity (ORAC). In the purified fractions, the LR LC-MS analyses displayed several masses, where 96 % (n = 1376) were of lower molecular weights (< 800 Da). Fifteen high value compounds were further identified using HR LC-MS (MS/MS) and/or NMR. This also included non-phenolics such as fucoxanthin, aliphatic acids and mannitol. Nonetheless, most compounds were identified as the targeted phenolics, consisting of lower molecular weight phenolic acids (salicylic acid, veratric acid, 5-caboxyvanillic acid, sinapic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, vanillic acid 4-sulfate, and dihydrocaffeic acid 3-sulfate) and phlorotannins (trimer, tetramer, hexamer, and a sulfated dimer). None of the identified phenolics have previously been reported in L. hyperborea. In general, a high occurrence of sulfated phenolic compounds was observed and a sulfated diphlorethol/difucol was characterized for the first time. The isolation and characterization of high value components in the leaf biomass of L. hyperborea strongly supports the development of a total utilization of commercial alginate production. The characterization also adds information on the phenolic content of seaweeds at a molecular level, valuable to research on seaweed biosynthesis and development, chemical ecology, and ocean monitoring.