Postvaccination immune responses and risk of primary total hip arthroplasty—A population-based cohort study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 2023. 10.1016/j.joca.2023.05.007
Objective To investigate the relationship between individual postvaccination immune responses and subsequent risk of total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method Results of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) following the Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination were used as a marker of individual immune responses. TST results from the mandatory mass tuberculosis screening program 1948–1975 (n = 236 770) were linked with information on subsequent THA during 1987–2020 from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was performed. Results A total of 10 698 individuals received a THA during follow-up. In men, there was no association between TST and risk of THA due to OA (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–1.12 for positive versus negative TST and HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95–1.18 for strong positive vs negative TST), while the risk estimates increased with increasingly restrictive sensitivity analyses. In women, there was no association with THA due to OA for positive versus negative TST (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.92–1.05), while a strong positive TST was associated with reduced risk of THA (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.97). No significant associations were observed in the sensitivity analysis for women or for THA due to RA. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased postvaccination immune response is associated with a nonsignificant trend of increased risk of THA among men and a decreased risk among women, although risk estimates were small.