Global Dynamical Network of the Spatially Correlated Pc2 Wave Response for the 2015 St. Patrick's Day Storm
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Space Physics. 2023, 128 (5), e2022JA031175. 10.1029/2022JA031175
We show the global dynamics of spatial correlation of Pc2 wave activity can track the evolution of the 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm for an 8 hr time window around onset. The global spatially coherent response is tracked by forming a dynamical network from 1 s data using the full set of 100+ ground-based magnetometer stations collated by SuperMAG and Intermagnet. The pattern of spatial coherence is captured by network parameters which in turn track the evolution of the storm. At onset interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz > 0 and Pc2 power increases, we find a global response with stations correlated over both local and global distances. Following onset, whilst Bz > 0, the network response is confined to the day-side. When IMF Bz < 0, there is a strong local response at high latitudes, consistent with the onset of polar cap convection driven by day-side reconnection. The spatially coherent response as revealed by the network grows and is maximal when auroral (SuperMAG electrojet) and ring current (SuperMAG ring current) 1 min resolution geomagnetic indices peak, consistent with an active electrojet and ring-current. Throughout the storm there is a coherent response both in stations located along lines of constant geomagnetic longitude, between hemispheres, and across magnetic local time. The network does not simply track average Pc2 wave power, it is characterized by network parameters which track the storm evolution. This is the first study to parameterize global Pc2 wave correlation and offers the possibility of statistical studies across multiple events and comparison with, and validation of, space weather models.