Atrial Dysfunction in Significant Atrial Functional Mitral Regurgitation: Phenotypes and Prognostic Implications
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonCirculation Cardiovascular Imaging. 2023, 16 (5), e015089. 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.122.015089
Background: Atrial functional mitral regurgitation (AFMR) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Left atrial (LA) size and function in AFMR are poorly characterized. We aimed to assess LA function by reservoir strain (LASr) and estimated reservoir work (LAWr) and their impact on outcome in AFMR. Methods: Consecutive patients at our institution between 2001 and 2019 and with significant (moderate or greater) AFMR were examined. LAWr was estimated as LASr×LA reservoir volume, and patients were grouped by median LASr and LAWr. Outcomes were all-cause death or heart failure hospitalizations. Results: Five hundred fifteen AFMR patients were followed up for 5 (1–17) years. Patients had previously documented atrial fibrillation (AF; 37%), heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) without AF (24%), or both (HFpEF+AF, 39%). LA volume was largest in AF, while LA function parameters were most impaired in the combined HFpEF+AF group. During follow-up, patients with low LASr or LAWr had higher risk of death (P<0.001) and heart failure hospitalization (P<0.05). In Cox regression analyses, low LASr and LAWr, but not LA volume or left ventricular function, were associated with a higher risk of death (LASr: hazard ratio, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.6–3.5]; LAWr: hazard ratio, 3.4 [95% CI, 2.4–4.9]; both P<0.001) after adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders. Low LASr and LAWr were strongest associated with death in HFpEF and HFpEF+AF. Conclusions: LA reservoir function but not LA size is a robust predictor of outcome in significant AFMR. This provides mechanistic insights into the interplay of functional versus geometric LA changes in AFMR.