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dc.contributor.authorWidding-Havnerås, Tarjei
dc.contributor.authorZachrisson, Henrik Daae
dc.contributor.authorMarkussen, Simen
dc.contributor.authorElwert, Felix
dc.contributor.authorLyhmann, Ingvild
dc.contributor.authorChaulagain, Ashmita
dc.contributor.authorBjelland, Ingvar
dc.contributor.authorHalmøy, Anne
dc.contributor.authorRypdal, Knut
dc.contributor.authorMykletun, Arnstein
dc.description.abstractObjective: Criminality rates are higher among persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and evidence that medication reduces crime is limited. Medication rates between clinics vary widely even within universal health care systems, partly because of providers’ treatment preferences. We used this variation to estimate causal effects of pharmacological treatment of ADHD on 4-year criminal outcomes. Method: We used Norwegian population-level registry data to identify all unique patients aged 10 to 18 years diagnosed with ADHD between 2009 and 2011 (n = 5,624), their use of ADHD medication, and subsequent criminal charges. An instrumental variable design, exploiting variation in provider preference for ADHD medication between clinics, was used to identify causal effects of ADHD medication on crime among patients on the margin of treatment, that is, patients who receive treatment because of their provider’s preference. Results: Criminality was higher in patients with ADHD relative to the general population. Medication preference varied between clinics and strongly affected patients’ treatment. Instrumental variable analyses supported a protective effect of pharmacological treatment on violence-related and public-order−related charges with numbers needed to treat of 14 and 8, respectively. There was no evidence for effects on drug-, traffic-, sexual-, or property-related charges. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate causal effects of pharmacological treatment of ADHD on some types of crimes in a population-based natural experiment. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD reduced crime related to impulsive-reactive behavior in patients with ADHD on the margin of treatment. No effects were found on crimes requiring criminal intent, conspiracy, and planning.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleEffect of Pharmacological Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Criminalityen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2023 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatryen_US
dc.source.journalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatryen_US
dc.identifier.citationJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2023.en_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal