Increased Plasma Levels of Triglyceride-Enriched Lipoproteins Associate with Systemic Inflammation, Lipopolysaccharides, and Gut Dysbiosis in Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Macpherson, Magnhild Eide; Skarpengland, Tonje; Hov, Johannes Espolin Roksund; Ranheim, Trine; Vestad, Beate; Dahl, Tuva Børresdatter; Fraz, Mai Sasaki Aanensen; Michelsen, Annika Elisabet; Holven, Kirsten Bjørklund; Fevang, Børre; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente; Jørgensen, Silje Fjellgård
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionJournal of Clinical Immunology. 2023, 43, 1229-1240. 10.1007/s10875-023-01475-x
Purpose: Triglycerides (TG) and their major transport lipoprotein in the circulation (VLDL) appear to be related to inflammation. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have inflammatory complications associated with gut microbial dysbiosis. We hypothesized that CVID patients have disturbed TG/VLDL profiles associated with these clinical characteristics. Methods: We measured plasma concentrations of TGs, inflammatory markers, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 95 CVID patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, in 40 CVID patients, we explored plasma lipoprotein profiling, fatty acid, gut microbial dysbiosis, and diet. Results: TG levels were increased in CVID patients as compared to healthy controls (1.36 ± 0.53 mmol/l versus 1.08 ± 0.56 [mean, SD], respectively, P = 0.008), particularly in the clinical subgroup “Complications,” characterized by autoimmunity and organ-specific inflammation, compared to “Infection only” (1.41 mmol/l, 0.71[median, IQR] versus [1.02 mmol/l, 0.50], P = 0.021). Lipoprotein profile analyses showed increased levels of all sizes of VLDL particles in CVID patients compared to controls. TG levels correlated positively with CRP (rho = 0.256, P = 0.015), IL-6 (rho = 0.237, P = 0.021), IL-12 (rho = 0.265, P = 0.009), LPS (r = 0.654, P = 6.59 × 10−13), CVID-specific gut dysbiosis index (r = 0.315, P = 0.048), and inversely with a favorable fatty acid profile (docosahexaenoic acid [rho = − 0.369, P = 0.021] and linoleic acid [rho = − 0.375, P = 0.019]). TGs and VLDL lipids did not appear to be associated with diet and there were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between CVID patients and controls. Conclusion: We found increased plasma levels of TGs and all sizes of VLDL particles, which were associated with systemic inflammation, LPS, and gut dysbiosis in CVID, but not diet or BMI.