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dc.contributor.authorJuusola, Liisa
dc.contributor.authorViljanen, Ari
dc.contributor.authorPartamies, Noora
dc.contributor.authorVanhamäki, Heikki
dc.contributor.authorKellinsalmi, Mirjam
dc.contributor.authorWalker, Simon
dc.description.abstractSubstorms are a commonly occurring but insufficiently understood form of dynamics in the coupled magnetosphere–ionosphere system, associated with space weather disturbances and auroras. We have used principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the spatiotemporal development of ionospheric equivalent currents as observed by the International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometers during 28 substorm onsets identified by Frey et al. (2004). Auroral observations were provided by all-sky cameras. We found that the equivalent currents can typically be described by three components: a channel of poleward equivalent current (wedgelet), a westward electrojet (WEJ) associated with an auroral arc, and a vortex. The WEJ and vortex are located at the equatorward end of the channel, which has been associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs) by previous studies. Depending on its polarity, the vortex either indents the WEJ and arc equatorward or bulges the WEJ poleward while winding the arc into an auroral spiral. In addition, there may be a background current system associated with the large-scale convection. The dynamics of the WEJ, vortex, and channel can describe up to 95 % of the variance of the time derivative of the equivalent currents during the examined 20 min interval. Rapid geomagnetic variations at the substorm onset location, which can drive geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in technological conductor networks, are mainly associated with the oscillations of the WEJ, which may be driven by oscillations of the transition region between dipolar and tail-like field lines in the magnetotail due to the BBF impact. The results contribute to the understanding of substorm physics and to the understanding of processes that drive intense GICs.en_US
dc.publisherCopernicus Publicationsen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleThree principal components describe the spatiotemporal development of mesoscale ionospheric equivalent currents around substorm onsetsen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2023 The Author(s)en_US
dc.source.journalAnnales Geophysicaeen_US
dc.identifier.citationAnnales Geophysicae. 2023, 41 (2), 483-510.en_US

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