Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase is preserved across different homo- and heterodimeric 14-3-3 proteins
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionAmino Acids 2016, 48(5):1221-1229 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2157-0
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is regulated by members of the 14-3-3 protein family. However, knowledge about the variation between 14-3-3 proteins in their regulation of TH is still limited. We examined the binding, effects on activation and dephosphorylation kinetics of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by abundant midbrain 14-3-3 proteins (β, η, ζ, γ and ε) of different dimer composition. All 14-3-3 homodimers and their respective 14-3-3ε-heterodimers bound with similar high affinity (Kd values of 1.4–3.8 nM) to serine19 phosphorylated human TH (TH-pS19). We similarly observed a consistent activation of bovine (3.3- to 4.4-fold) and human TH-pS19 (1.3–1.6 fold) across all the different 14-3-3 dimer species, with homodimeric 14-3-3γ being the strongest activator. Both hetero- and homodimers of 14-3-3 strongly inhibited dephosphorylation of TH-pS19, and we speculate if this is an important homeostatic mechanism of 14-3-3 target-protein regulation in vivo. We conclude that TH is a robust interaction partner of different 14-3-3 dimer types with moderate variability between the 14-3-3 dimers on their regulation of TH.