Økonomisk globalisering og europeeres vurdering av demokrati: En flernivåanalyse av 29 land i tidsperioden 2002-2012
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Aim: This study investigates how satisfaction with democracy is affected by economic globalization in Europe. A special emphasis is placed upon the interaction between economic globalization and national governments’ room to manoeuvre and the effect of this interaction upon how citizens evaluate democratic performance. There are two alternative mechanisms through which economic globalization may influence satisfaction with democracy, which flow from two conflicting theoretical arguments: constraint and compensation theories. This study also distinguishes between a general index of globalization and its distinct dimensions such as capital ownership and trade. The effects of these respective dimensions are investigated to see whether they act differently. Data and method: The study is based on the pooled cumulative data set from European Social Survey with six waves in 29 European countries from 2002 to 2012 (n = 267 627). These data are combined with economic and political contextual variables from the Quality of Governance, Eurostat and World Bank (World Wide Governance) data sources. Mixed effects multilevel linear regression models are utilized to analyse how satisfaction with democracy is affected by individual and contextual variables, as well as the interaction effect of economic globalization and national governments’ performance on individuals’ satisfaction with democracy. Results: This study shows that economic globalization affects citizens’ evaluation of democratic performance in different ways. The strongest finding in this study is that citizens are more dissatisfied when they believe that economic globalization constrains national governments’ room to manoeuvre. While on the other hand government efficiency under higher level of economic globalization indicates that citizens are more satisfied with democratic performance. The findings suggest that the two measures of economic globalization have different effects on citizen, where the general index is negatively associated and higher levels of democratic satisfaction while capital ownership is positively associated with democratic satisfaction. Individuals with low socioeconomic status are more dissatisfied than individuals with higher socioeconomic status across citizens in twenty-nine European countries. Conclusion: Different dimensions of economic globalization have different effects upon citizens’ evaluation of democratic performance and these results can be useful for understanding citizens’ satisfaction with democracy.