PKU mutation p.G46S prevents the stereospecific binding of l-phenylalanine to the dimer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase regulatory domain
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has a potential allosteric regulatory binding site for l‐phenylalanine (l‐Phe), in addition to its catalytic site. This arrangement is supported by a crystal structure of a homodimeric truncated form of the regulatory domain of human PAH (hPAH‐RD1–118/19–118) [Patel D et al. (2016) Sci Rep doi: 10.1038/srep23748]. In this study, a fusion protein of the domain (MBP‐(pepXa)‐hPAH‐RD1–120) was overexpressed and recovered in a metastable and soluble state, which allowed the isolation of a dimeric and a monomeric fusion protein. When cleaved from MBP, hPAH‐RD forms aggregates which are stereospecifically inhibited by l‐Phe (> 95%) at low physiological concentrations. Aggregation of the cleaved dimer of the mutant form hPAH‐G46S‐RD was not inhibited by l‐Phe, which is compatible with structurally/conformationally changed βαββαβ ACT domain folds in the mutant.