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dc.contributor.authorFrentz, Dinekeen_US
dc.contributor.authorVan de Vijver, David A. M. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAbecasis, Ana B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAlbert, Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorHamouda, Osamahen_US
dc.contributor.authorJørgensen, Louise B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKücherer, Claudiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorStruck, Danielen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmit, Jean-Claudeen_US
dc.contributor.authorVercauteren, Jurgenen_US
dc.contributor.authorÅsjø, Birgittaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBalotta, Claudiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBeshkov, Danailen_US
dc.contributor.authorCamacho, Ricardo J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorClotet, Bonaventuraen_US
dc.contributor.authorCoughlan, Suzieen_US
dc.contributor.authorGriskevicius, Algirdasen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrossman, Zehavaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHorban, Andrzejen_US
dc.contributor.authorKolupajeva, Tatjanaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKorn, Klausen_US
dc.contributor.authorKostrikis, Leondios G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLiitsola, Kirsien_US
dc.contributor.authorLinka, Mareken_US
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Clausen_US
dc.contributor.authorOtelea, Danen_US
dc.contributor.authorParaskevis, Dimitriosen_US
dc.contributor.authorParedes, Rogeren_US
dc.contributor.authorPoljak, Marioen_US
dc.contributor.authorPuchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabethen_US
dc.contributor.authorSönnerborg, Andersen_US
dc.contributor.authorStanekova, Danicaen_US
dc.contributor.authorStanojevic, Majaen_US
dc.contributor.authorVan Wijngaerden, Ericen_US
dc.contributor.authorWensing, Annemarie M. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBoucher, Charles A. B.en_US
dc.contributor.authoron behalf of the SPREAD Programmeen_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: One out of ten newly diagnosed patients in Europe was infected with a virus carrying a drug resistant mutation. We analysed the patterns over time for transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) using data from the European Spread program. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological and virological data from 4317 patients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between 2002 and 2007 were analysed. Patients were enrolled using a pre-defined sampling strategy. Results: The overall prevalence of TDRM in this period was 8.9% (95% CI: 8.1-9.8). Interestingly, significant changes over time in TDRM caused by the different drug classes were found. Whereas nucleoside resistance mutations remained constant at 5%, a significant decline in protease inhibitors resistance mutations was observed, from 3.9% in 2002 to 1.6% in 2007 (p = 0.001). In contrast, resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) doubled from 2.0% in 2002 to 4.1% in 2007 (p = 0.004) with 58% of viral strains carrying a K103N mutation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these temporal changes could not be explained by large clusters of TDRM. Conclusion: During the years 2002 to 2007 transmitted resistance to NNRTI has doubled to 4% in Europe. The frequent use of NNRTI in first-line regimens and the clinical impact of NNRTI mutations warrants continued monitoring.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centraleng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleIncrease in transmitted resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Europeen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2014 Frentz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.rights.holderDineke Frentz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.source.journalBMC Infectious Diseases

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