Evaluation of nutritional status and methods to identify nutritional risk in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionNutrients. 2020, 12(11), 3571, 1-12 10.3390/nu12113571
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) experience several nutritional challenges and are prone to develop malnutrition. This observational study aimed to perform a comprehensive nutritional assessment of outpatients diagnosed with RA and SpA, as well as to evaluate methods to identify nutritional risk. Nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric measures, body composition (DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), and handgrip strength (HGS). Nutritional risk was classified by Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and malnutrition was defined by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m2, <16.7 (M), <14.6 (F)). Out of 71 included patients, 46 (66%) were abdominally obese, 28 (39%) were obese in terms of body mass index (BMI), and 33 (52%) were obese in terms of the fat mass index (FMI; kg/m2, ≥8.3 (M), ≥11.8 (F)). Malnutrition was identified according to FFMI in 12 (19%) patients, according to GLIM criteria in 5 (8%) patients, and on the basis of BMI (<18.5 kg/m2) in 1 (1%) patient. None were identified by NRS2002 to be at nutritional risk. Our study revealed high prevalence of abdominal obesity and low FFMI. Waist circumference was a good indicator of FMI. BMI, NRS2002, and HGS did not capture patients with malnutrition identified by DXA.