Diversity patterns and conservation gaps of Magnoliaceae species in China
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonScience of the Total Environment. 2022, 813, 152665. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152665
Magnoliaceae, a primitive group of angiosperms and distinguished ornamental plants with more than 100 species in China, is one of the most threatened plant family in the wild due to logging, habitat loss, over-collection and climate change. To provide a scientific guide of its conservation for policymakers, we explore the diversity patterns of 114 Magnoliaceae species in China using three diversity indices (species richness, weighted endemism, β-diversity) with a spatial resolution of 10 km by 10 km. Two methods, the top 5% richness algorithm and complementary algorithm, are used to identify diversity hotspots. Conservation gaps are recognized by overlapping the diversity hotspots with Chinese nature reserves. Our results indicate that Magnoliaceae species richness and weighted endemism are high in tropical to subtropical low montane forests in southern China, exceptionally high in southernmost Yunnan and boundary of Guizhou, Guangxi and Hunan. The β-diversity are scattered in southern China, suggesting a different species composition among grid cells. We identify 2524 grids as diversity hotspots for Magnoliaceae species in China, with 24 grids covered by three diversity indices (first-level diversity hotspots), 561 grids covered by two indices (second-level diversity hotspots) simultaneously and 1939 grids (76.8%) covered by only one index (third-level diversity hotspots). The first-level diversity hotspots include over 70% of the critically endangered Magnoliaceae species and are the priority areas for Magnoliaceae conservation. However, only 24% of the diversity hotspots fall in nature reserves and only ten grids are from the first-level diversity hotspots. Zhejiang, Guizhou and Fujian have less than 20% of diversity hotspots covered by nature reserves and need attention in future Magnoliaceae conservation. Using multiple diversity indices and algorithms, our study identifies diversity hotspots and conservation gaps and provides scientific basis for Magnoliaceae conservation in future.
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