Efficient Monte Carlo simulation reveals significant multiple scattering errors in underwater angular scattering measurements
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionOptics Express. 2022, 30 (7), 10802-10817. 10.1364/OE.446045
Multiple scattering can severely affect the accuracy of optical instrumentation. Variance reduction methods have been implemented to improve a Monte Carlo model developed to simulate volume scattering functions measured by LISST-VSF instruments. The implemented methods can result in more than a tenfold increase in efficiency. The simulation is used to analyze multiple scattering errors for a range of Fournier-Forand (FF) phase functions. Our results demonstrate significant errors in the scattering coefficient, backscattering coefficient and phase function, where multiple scattering errors may only be considered negligible (<10%) for scattering coefficients <1 m−1. The errors depend strongly on the scattering coefficient but also increase when phase functions become more forward-peaked.