Interaction of three-dimensional acoustic beam with fluid-loaded solid plate: Axial near- to far-field transmission at normal beam incidence
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionUltrasonics. 2022, 125, 106795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2022.106795
Axial radiation from leaky Lamb waves propagating in a 6.05 mm water-immersed steel plate being excited by a sound beam normally incident to the plate, is investigated as a function of axial distance, z, and frequency, f, over the 350–1000 kHz frequency band of the S2, A2, and A3 Lamb modes in the plate. For certain leaky Lamb modes, prior literature has revealed complex characteristics in the transmitted pressure field close to the plate, caused by diffraction due to the finite angular spectrum of the incident beam. The present work extends earlier work by bringing insight into the changes of these field characteristics in the near- and far-field of the transmitted beam, over the frequency band of leaky Lamb modes, for normal beam incidence to the plate. A baffled piston source in a full-wave angular spectrum propagation model is used to analyze the phenomena involved. Maxima and minima that can not be described with plane wave theory are observed in the frequency spectrum of the axial pressure transfer function through the plate. At very long ranges the normalized transmitted sound beam tends to attain characteristics of the plate’s plane-wave transmission coefficient, for two of the leaky Lamb modes. Nearfield interference phenomena not described in prior literature are identified. For the leaky Lamb mode associated with a backward-wave branch close to the fundamental thickness-extensional resonance in the plate, TE1, the axial near-field is shown to extend to very far ranges. Supplementary measurements add confidence to the simulation results and findings. Besides of their fundamental significance in the study and understanding of sound beams transmitted through a fluid-immersed solid plate, the results are of importance e.g. in immersion applications where material characterization is made using fluid-coupled ultrasonic transducers in a through-thickness resonant transmission setup, such as plate thickness or material properties measurements.